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"Some no-fee OA journals have direct or indirect subsidies from institutions like universities, laboratories, research centers, libraries, hospitals, museums, learned societies, foundations, or government agencies.Some have revenue from a separate line of non-OA publications.Reactions of existing publishers to open access journal publishing have ranged from moving with enthusiasm to a new open access business model, to experiments with providing as much free or open access as possible, to active lobbying against open access proposals.

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Whilst no official open access logo exists, organizations are free to select the logo style that best supports their visual language. Widespread public access to the World Wide Web in the late 1990s and early 2000s fueled the open access movement, as it provided a very-low-cost method for quickly distributing a large number of copies.

Academic articles (as historically seen in paper-based academic journals) have been the main focus of the movement.

Different distribution mechanisms and business models have come to be associated with certain colors used as shorthand or a classification system.

These include: though this number has fallen to 9,500 in January 2017.

and other aspects of open access provision and open access publishing.

Access to online content requires Internet access, and this distributional consideration presents physical and sometimes financial barriers to access.The OALibrary provides open and free access to a large database of scientific research papers, covering all topics.Users may browse to find open access journals by country or by subject.In cases of economic hardship, many journals will waive all or part of the fee, including authors from less developed economies).Journals charging publication fees normally take various steps to ensure that editors conducting peer review do not know whether authors have requested, or been granted, fee waivers, or to ensure that every paper is approved by an independent editor with no financial stake in the journal.Conventional (non-open access) journals cover publishing costs through access tolls such as subscriptions, site licenses or pay-per-view charges.

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